Health is the function of containing, preventing and (within the public hospital sector) treating illness within New South Wales. It involves "public health", which is achieved by controlling those aspects of society where problems may lead to the spread of disease, such as sanitation and food preparation and handling. Health also includes preventative programs such as vaccination, free medical and /or dental examinations for identified groups, a system for notifying infectious and other serious diseases, and procedures to see that diseases are contained. It also involves the authorisation and regulation of treatments, drugs and other pharmaceutical products.

The State Government is a major provider of health services through public hospitals (general and psychiatric), clinics, nursing homes and other facilities. The Government also aims to protect health consumers by registering health care professionals, including doctors, dentists, nurses, podiatrists and physiotherapists.